Electron Beam Lithography (EBL)

The LaNN laboratory is one of the most important nanofabrication centers in Italy and it’s active in several research fields.

Electronic lithography (EBL) is a technique that uses a focused beam of highly energetic electrons to write very high resolution patterns ( 8nm) on a substrate coated with a sensitive film (resist).

The beam scans the image to be displayed according to a pattern previously defined on a CAD file. The structures thus defined are detected by subsequently developing the resist in an appropriate solvent.

The aim, as in photolithography, is to exploit the resist as a template for subsequent pattern transfer techniques such as dry etching or metal liftoff.

The EBL technique has a wide range of applications and the LaNN can boast a consolidated expertise in the realization of:

  • integrated electronic and photonic circuits
  • zone plates
  • photonic crystals
  • Plasmonic grating
  • master’s degree
  • masks
  • development of special three-dimensional nanofabrication paradigms for the manufacture of innovative opto-electronic devices (phase masks) and holograms

The LaNN laboratory is equipped with an EBL JEOL JBX-6300FS system for Master & Mask Production and High Resolution Lithography:

  • is able to write on 3, 4 and 6 inch wafers with a resolution of 8nm, an overlay accuracy of 15nm and a field stitching accuracy of 15nm;
  • uses a 19bit DAC, with a selectable acceleration voltage of 25kV, 50kV and 100kV;
  • is equipped with an automatic loader that guarantees the possibility of unattended continuous operation up to 10 cassettes in sequence;
  • is equipped with GenISys BEAMER software for proximity correction.
    • Acceleration voltages: 100, 50, 25KV
    • Electronic Probe Current: da 30pA a 20nA
    • Minimum beam size: 2 to 3nm in high resolution mode at 100KV
    • Beam shape: spot beam
    • Beam deflection method: vector scan
    • Single Writing Field (max) at 100KV: 62.5um in High Resolution Writing Mode, 500um in High Speed Writing Mode
    • Scan speed:up to 12MHz
    • Scan rate: up to 0.125nm (in high resolution mode at 100KV)
    • Beam positioning DAC: 19 bits
    • Beam positioning accuracy: 0.125nm
    • Autoloader: automatically loads up to 10 cassettes
    • Wafer writing size: fup to 6”
    • Writing Performancea: In High Resolution Mode at 100KV:
      1. minimum feature size: ≦ 8nm
      2. overlay accuracy: 15nm
      3. field stitching accuracy: 15nm


Filippo Romanato: filippo.romanato@unipd.it